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Today we’ll be going through an overview of kidney stones, as listed in a Mayoclinic blog post.

Kidney Stones

These stones, commonly called calculi, nephrolithiasis, or urolithiasis, are hard deposits made from the salt and other minerals that generally form in your kidneys, affecting any part of your urinary tract from your kidneys all the way to your bladder. These are due to diet, body weight, medical supplements, or other conditions that can generally cause it. What normally happens is that when urine becomes more concentrated, minerals found in your kidneys crystallize and stick together, creating stones.

Passing these stones from your kidneys to your bladder and out your body can be quite excruciating. Luckily, if they’re passed quickly, they don’t cause any permanent damage. Depending on how bad the situation is, you might not need anything more than antibiotics and an excess amount of water. However, if the stones lodge in the urinary tract, or you get an infection, you may need surgery.

Preventative treatment can definitely reduce your risk of recurrent kidney stones, especially if you’re at an increased risk of producing more.


Kidney stones generally don’t cause problems until they start moving around, or you start to pass it to your ureters – the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. If it gets stuck, it may stop the flow of urine, causing the kidney to become swollen and the ureter to spasm, which is where it can become incredibly painful. 

Signs and symptoms can include

  • Severe, stabbing pain in the side and back below the ribs
  • Burning sensations while urinating
  • Pink, brown, or red urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Urinating more often or urinating in small amounts
  • Fever and chills
    • This is only if an infection is present
  • Pain near the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and varying intensity

When to see a doctor

You should seek medical attention if you are experiencing severe pain, nausea and vomiting, fever and chills, blood in your urine, or difficulty passing urine. Seeing a doctor could help save you from a lot of pain.