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The thyroid gland is a widespread butterfly-like organ located in the throat area at the trachea section. Its prime roles affect numerous body functions such as digestion, heart function, skin nourishment, fertility, and growth. Thyroid abnormalities are caused by malfunctions resulting from either over-activity or under-activity of the thyroid gland leading to different conditions. These include:


Goiter is excessive swelling of the thyroid gland often characterized by a significant inflammation on the front area of the neck. Goiter stems from iodine deficiency resulting from over-activity, under-activity, or normal gland functioning. This leads to improper cell enlargement that may result in swelling of the area and excessive coughing.


Successive under-performance of the thyroid gland leading to fewer thyroid hormones is the cause of this abnormality. A person may feel fatigued, have mental lethargy, depression, dry flushed skin, and constipation.

The condition results from resistance to thyroid hormone by body cells and inflammation of the thyroid gland from infections. It reduces its operation and an autoimmune body response that causes the gland to swell.


Sudden progressive over-activity of the thyroid gland leads to an excess in thyroid hormone production, which affects specific body changes explaining its name. The causes include excessive iodine intake and thyroid nodules.

Those having this abnormality may experience increased metabolism, fatigue, fast heart rate, tremors, high body temperature, excessive sweating, and weight loss.

Thyroid cancer

It is a malignancy of the thyroid gland caused by changes in cell structure. Thyroid cancer presents different signs according to the specific area affected.

Its fatality, however, significantly reduces when diagnosed early. Thyroid cancer leads to over-activity or under-activity of the thyroid gland affecting its normal function.

Thyroid nodules

These are abnormal masses present within the thyroid gland. They vary in size and appear as single or multiple masses. They often show complications once they overgrow and start compressing various glands. This affects the normal working of these glands resulting in malfunctions or inability to perform their essential functions.


Thyroid abnormalities pose a danger when neglected, but when diagnosed early, are treatable. It is essential to undergo routine full body checkups to ensure early detection. One can visit their family doctor at least twice a year for a full-body examination.